The human brain is a small organ that does wonderful things for us, the weight of the brain is only 1.5Kg (3,3Lb). It is designed to keep the human being alive and able to adapt to changing daily situations of our lives. The anatomy of the brain is structured in a way that helps us be more superior to other species. Human brain is smarter than any Artificial Intelligence or computer ever produced. The Memory size of the human Brian is capable of storing information of about 70 years, which is incredible considering the fact that our current man-made memory disks can record information for a few hours to just a few months for the biggest memory capacity.
Different parts of the brain perform different functions. The brain is like a Computer in a sense that it uses electricity to Process information, the difference is it generates its own electric signals and need a very small Voltage to work. It tells the body what to do by sending electrical message which travels through the nerves to the desired body part. For example, if you want to lift the arm, the brain will send an electrical signal which will go via the nerves to the muscles of the arm and instruct the arm to go up. The brain also send signals inside itself to communicate and process certain information.
The nerves that conduct electrical signals are just like electric wires, they are made up of smaller units called Neurons, and the whole brain is also made up of Neurons, which are shorter than the ones that make up Nerves. The Brain never rest or sleep, even when you are sleeping, it is still working. The brain is made up of about 85 Billion Neurons, same number of Stars in our Galaxy. The brain relies on Oxygen and sufficient blood supply to function properly, that’s why if it does not get enough blood the cells die and the person suffers stroke.
Different Parts of The Brain
The Human brain is designed to be best at performing all the tasks at hand, whether it’s simple tasks or the complex tasks. It has two different sides which are called the Left Hemisphere and the Right Hemisphere. The Right Hemisphere (right side) controls the left side of the body while the Left Hemisphere controls the right side. Nobody knows why that is the case. In between the two Hemispheres is the bunch of Neurons that connect the two Hemispheres so that each side of the brain can know what the other side is doing, it is called Corpus Callosum.
The brain performs 3 basic functions which are controlled and processed in 3 areas:
- Involuntary Activities : these include breathing Heart beat and blinking or controlling size of the eye pupils
- Balance and coordination: this is the part that most man-made robots lack, being able to move smoothly and balance perfectly, think of how smooth we move when walking or drawing versus how the robots move.
- Voluntary activities: These include things like thinking, talking, moving and interpretation of Sensations like smell, touch, sound and vision.
The Involuntary activities are controlled in the middle section and lower part of the brain called Brain Stem. This also the place where the information from the right side of the body crosses to the left side of the brain and from the left side of the body to the right side of the brain, called Decussation point. Other activities include controlling digestion, sleep and swallowing or all involuntary activities you can think of.
The Balance and Coordination is controlled by a small piece of the brain on the back side called Cerebellum.
The Cerebrum is more like the CPU (main processor) in the brain. It is the biggest part of the brain and performs most of the activities. It is the one that is responsible for all the voluntary activities like sensations, talking, Motor functions (movement) and Critical thinking. It covers the front of the brain, the sides and the top of the brain. A small part also covers the back side.
4 Parts and Functions of Cerebrum.
The cerebrum is divided into four main parts which have different functions. All these parts do communicate with each other for a smooth functioning of the whole body.
1. Frontal Lobe
This is the front part of the brain. The Frontal Lobe has the following functions:
- Problem solving
- Judgement and reasoning
- Voluntary movements in a place called Primary motor cortex
2. Temporal Lobe
These are the sides of the brain, there are two temporal lobes, one on each side of the brain. Functions of Temporal Lobe are:
- Understanding Language
- Interpreting sound (Hearing)
3. Parietal Lobe Functions
This the top part of the brain it has the following functions:
- It is where body sensations are interpreted
- The differentiation of right to left is done here (knowing the difference)
- Body orientation sensation like whether you are standing or lying
4. The Occipital lobe Job
It is a small part at the back of the Cerebrum which has only two main functions:
- Vision processing
- Color sensation
This was just the summary of different parts of the brain and what each part does. The human brain is more complex and made of many smaller parts.