Normal Lab Value References

This page contains an A-Z  list of Normal Lab Value References for common body function factors such as Hormones, Full Blood Count, Electrolytes and other chemicals in the blood that keep us alive.

These values usually indicate possible illness or cause of ill health if one or more falls outside the normal range.

 In some instances, you may have an abnormal value due to some external factors other than a disease.

Use the alphabet list to quickly jump to the parameter you want to check. Values may slightly differ from one lab to another based on the method of calculation and local guidelines.


Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH) Normal Range

Normal value: <80ng/L (Nano-grams per Litre of blood).

Interpretation: High levels may indicate Addison disease.

Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) normal range

Normal Range: 5-35u/L (units per Litre).

Interpretation: High value indicates liver cells injury or liver disease.

Albumin Normal Range

Normal Range: 35-50 g/L.

Additional information: The value is affected by Liver Impairment, Renal Impairment, Low protein diet, Infections.

Aldosterone Normal Range

Normal Range: 100-500pmol/L(Pico-moles per Litre).

Interpretation: High levels may indicate a tumor in the Adrenal glands. It also causes sodium level to rise.

Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) Normal Range

Normal Range: 30-130u/L.

Interpretation: High value indicate Liver disease if other liver enzymes like AST and ALT are also high. It is also high in tissue injury anywhere in the body.

α-amylase Normal Range

Normal Range: 0-180 IU/dL.

Interpretation: The value is high when you have Pancreatitis.

α-fetoprotein (AFP) Normal Range

Normal range: 0 to 40ng/mL.

Interpretation: It is usually high in certain types of cancers and Tumors.

Angiotensin II Normal Range

Normal Range: 5-35pmol/L.

Interpretation: Elevated levels are seen in Heart Failure.

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Normal Range

Normal Range: 0.9-4.6pmol/L.

Interpretation: it is high in patients that have Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH Secretion (SIADH).

Aspartate transaminase (AST) Normal Range

Normal Range: 5-30u/L.

Interpretation: It is high in people who have liver disease and diseases of the biliary tree.


 Bicarbonate Normal Range

Normal Range: 22-29mmol/L (millimoles per litre). The units of measurement can also be mEq/L but the value is the same.

Interpretation: low bicarbonate levels are a serious concern especially in Acute Diabetes complications like Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka).

Total Bilirubin Normal Range

Normal range: 3-17µmol/L.

Interpretation: Elevated value indicates jaundice, which has many causes ranging from liver disease to haemolysis.

BNP Normal Range

Normal Range: <50ng/L.

Additional information: Its full name is Brain Natriuretic peptide, High levels indicate Heart Failure.


C-Reactive Protein (CRP) normal range

Normal value is <10mg/L.

Interpretation: It is an inflammatory marker produced by the liver. Its value is elevated when there is Inflammation anywhere in the body, especially caused by acute infections.

Calcitonin Normal Range

Normal value is <0.1mcg/L (micrograms per Litre).

Interpretation: Elevated in Medullary Thyroid carcinoma.

Chloride Normal Range

Normal range: 95-105mmol/L.

Interpretation: Abnormal value increases risk of Seizures and cardiac arrhythmias.

Cholesterol Normal Range

Total Cholesterol normal range is <5mmol/L.

For HDL cholesterol, acceptable value is 0.9-1.93mmol/L.

For LDL the accepted normal value is less than 2mmol/L for both genders.

Interpretation: HDL cholesterol is considered good cholesterol and LDL cholesterol is bad cholesterol. LDL should be as low as possible.

Cortisol Normal Range

Cortisol value fluctuates significantly with circadian rhythm. Its value is usually measured midnight.

Norma midnight range: 80-220nmo/L.

Interpretation: elevated cortisol is seen in Cushing’s syndrome among many other abnormalities.

Creatine Kinase (CK) Normal Range

Normal Range for males: 25-195u/L.

Normal Range for females: 25-170u/L.

Interpretation: It is an enzyme that is released when there is muscle injury or muscle breakdown.

Creatinine Normal Range

Norma range is 70 to 100 µmol/L.

Interpretation: It indicates Kidney function status. The value is high if you have kidney failure or acute kidney injury

Calcium Normal Range

Total Calcium normal range: 2.12-2.60 mmol/L.

Additional Information: corrected calcium is clinically more useful than total calcium.


D-Dimer Normal Range

Normal range is <0.5mg/L.

Interpretation: It is high in medical conditions like DVT and some infections.


Ferritin Normal Level

Norma range for plasma ferritin is 12-200mcg/L.

Interpretation: It is essential in storage of Iron which is used in production of Red Blood Cells.


Gamma-glutamyl Transferase (GGT)

Normal value range: <40 U/L.

Interpretation: This is a liver enzyme, it is high if you have Alcohol Liver disease and other liver related diseases.

Growth Hormone

Normal adult levels of growth hormone are less than 20mu/L.

Interpretation: High levels of growth hormone may be caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland, causing Acromegaly.



The normal range for HbA1C is less than 6.5% for non-Diabetics. For Persons living with diabetes, treatment target is to get levels below 7.0%.

Interpretation: HbA1C is used to diagnose and Monitor Diabetes Mellitus control.


Iron Normal Blood Levels

For males normal range is 14-31µmol/L.

For females the range is 11-30µmol/L.

Interpretation: Iron is essential in producing haemoglobin. Low iron levels lead to Iron Deficiency Anaemia.

International Normalized Ratio (INR)

INR normal range for healthy individuals is 0.8-1.1.

For patients on Warfarin and other blood thinners, common therapeutic range target is INR of 2-3. This target value may change based on the patient’s condition.

Interpretation: INR measures how thin the blood is. The higher the value above 1.1, the thinner the blood and the higher the risk of bleeding.



Venous blood normal range: 0.6-2.4mmol/L.

Arterial blood range (via Arterial Blood Gas) is 0.6-1.8mmol/L.

Interpretation: High Lactate is associated with Lactic Acidosis.

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)

Normal range: 105-233 according to URMC

Interpretation: High levels of LDH means there is some tissue damage in the body, even if it is not caused by a disease like after a strenuous exercise.


Magnesium Normal Range

Lab normal range: 0.85-1.05mmol/L.

Interpretation: A value above or below this signifies electrolyte imbalance in the body.



Normal range is 278-305 mOsmo/kg.

Interpretation: High osmolality (hyperosmolar state) is seen in one of the Complications of Diabetes.


Parathyroid Hormone

Normal reference range is 2.0-6.8pmol/L.

Interpretation: Higher than normal value is called Hyperparathyroidism, which is a medical condition that causes high blood calcium levels.


Reference value: 3.5-5.3mmol/L.

Interpretation: Hyperkalaemia (high potassium) and Hypokalaemia (low potassium) can cause Fatal heart arrhythmias


For Males normal range is <450u/L.

For females the reference is <600u/L.

Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA)

Normal PSA is less than 4mcg/mL.

Interpretation: High value may be caused by Prostate cancer or Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH).

Protein (total)

Total serum protein reference range is 60-80g/L.

Interpretation: There are many conditions that can cause low/high total protein. Low albumin is the common contributor of low protein count.

High protein count is usually seen in infections.



Reference range: 135-145mmol/L.

Interpretation: Hyper- or Hyponatremia (high/ low levels) can cause Seizures and Cerebral Oedema.


Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

0.5-4.2mIU/L is the normal reference range of TSH

Thyroxine (free T4)

Normal Range of Thyroxine is 4.5-11.5 mcg/dL.

Interpretation: Higher than normal level is called hyperthyroidism while lower level is called Hypothyroidism.

Troponin: High Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin (hs-cTn)

The normal value for adults is less than 14ng/L.

Interpretation: Levels higher than 14 indicate possible Myocardial Infarction (MI), also known as Heart Attack.



Normal reference value range is 1.8-7.1mmol/L.

Interpretation: High urea indicate impaired Kidney function.

Uric Acid

Normal range: 4.0-8.5mg/dL for males and 2.7-7.3mg/dL in females.

Interpretation: High Uric acid causes Gout.


Vitamin B12

Normal reference range is 0.13-0.68mmol/L.

Full Blood Count (FBC) Normal lab Reference

Full Blood Count is also called Complete blood count (CBC).

Below is a table that shows its components and lab value references.

MeasurementReference Range
White Cell Count (WCC)4.0-11.0 X10⁹/L
Red Cell Count (RCC)4.5-6.5  X 1012/L for males &
3.9-5.6 X 1012/L females
Haemoglobin (Hb)13.0-18.0 g/dL males &
11.5-16.0 g/dL females
Haematocrit0.4-0.54L/L males. &
0.37-0.47L/L females.
Mean Cell Volume MCV76-96 fL
Mean Cell Haemoglobin (MCH)27-32 pg
Mean Cell Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)300-360g/L
Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)11.6-14.6%
Reticulocytes25-100 X 10⁹/L
Platelet  Count150-400  10⁹/L
Mean Platelet Volume (MPV)8.7-12.1 fL


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